Multicomponent mimetics of extracellular matrix in the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine
Yu.B. Basok 1 and V.I.Sevastianov 1, 2
1 Biomedical Technology and Tissue Engineering Department, V.I. Shumakov National Medical Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs, Moscow, Russia, email@example.com
2 The Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology, Moscow, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. of Biological Sciences Yulia B. Basok
Head of Biomedical Technology and Tissue Engineering Department, Shumakov National Medical Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs, Russia
Abstract. The formation of cell-engineered constructs (CEC) capable of stimulating regeneration and/or temporarily or permanently replacing the functions of damaged tissues and organs is an actual task due to the shortage of donor organs, despite the steady development of transplantology. The CEC consist of cells and a extracellular matrix, whose function is to deliver and retain cells at the implantation site. Biocompatible and bioresorbable cellular carriers allow long-term maintenance of viability and functional activity of cells in the composition of CEC, creating an optimal microenvironment in vitro.
As a result of the complex of studies conducted, scaffolds have been developed that represent two groups of biomimetics of the natural extracellular matrix: hydrogel collagen-containing and tissue-specific from decellularized tissues. To date, it has been possible to obtain functionally active cell-engineered constructs of the liver, pancreas and articular cartilage with developed scaffolds. The specific activity of the created biomedical cell products has been proven in appropriate experimental animal models: liver failure, type I diabetes mellitus, and osteoarthritis. The results obtained give us reason to hope for the possibility of introducing the developed cellular products into clinical practice as an alternative to liver and pancreas transplantation, as well as instead of knee and hip replacement. Scaffolds, which are original components of the CEC, are protected by patents.